148: Police response to youth offending around the generation and distribution of indecent images of children and its implications

Professor Andy Phippen, University of Bournemouth and Professor Emma Bond, University of Suffolk (2020).

A summary of a study exploring the arrest and crime recording of minors in the UK for the generation or distribution of indecent images of children, under the 1978 Protection of Children Act. A series of FOIA requests were sent to UK police forces asking for figures on the volume of arrests of minors under Home Office crime code 86/2, and also the number of outcome 21 recordings made against minors related to image offences, since December 2016. 30 police forces sent responses and the data were collated for the two categories (Home Office Crime code 86/2 and outcome 21) over the specified time period. Trends in the data were examined.

147: Intimate image abuse in adults and under 18s: A comparative analysis of cases dealt with by the Revenge Porn Helpline and Professionals Online Safety Helpline

SWGfL in partnership with the University of Exeter Economic and Social Research Council (October, 2019)

A summary of a qualitative study comparing intimate image abuse in Under 18s and adults. Data from the Revenge Porn Helpline and Professionals Online Safety Helpline (POSH) (based at South West Grid for Learning) were analysed. Four months of call and email case notes were sampled from each helpline. Individual contacts to the helplines were analysed using a thematic, inductive approach in order to investigate potential relationships between intimate image abuse in adults and under 18s, including effects on victims and perpetrator motivations.

119: Adolescents’ Perceptions of the Applications Used, Motives For, and Consequences of Sexting

Joris Van Ouytsel, Ellen Van Gool, Michel Walrave, Koen Ponnet and Emilie Peeters (Nov 2017)

A summary of the results of a study examining high school students’ perceptions of sexting behaviour. 57 adolescents (66.67% females) participated in 11 focus groups examining the role of digital media within romantic relationships. The focus group interviews were conducted between March and May 2015. Each focus group included 3-8 participants between 15 and 18 years old.

112: Self-Produced Images – Risk Taking Online (SPIRTO) Project

Dr Ethel Quayle et al (July 2015) 

The EU funded SPIRTO Project examined the risks related to young people generating and sharing sexual content (or ‘sexting’) in Sweden, Germany and the UK. It used a mixed method approach which included analysis of anonymised archival data to examine the prevalence of self-taken images in the Child Exploitation Image Database (ICSE-DB). Qualitative interviews (N = 51) were also undertaken exploring the experiences of young people who had sent or posted self-produced images when aged under 18. The final phase involved the development and evaluation of short, animated films based on the results of the project. 

110: Adolescents and Self-Taken Sexual Images: A Review of the Literature

Dr Ethel Quayle & Dr Karen Cooper (University of Edinburgh, UK), Prof Carl-Göran Svedin & Dr Linda Jonsson (Linköping University, Sweden) (Aug 2016) 

A summary of the results of a systematic review of the literature relating to sexting behaviours among young people aged under 25 across nine interdisciplinary databases (e.g., psychology, sociology, health, media studies and education). The review examined young people’s experiences of sending (rather than receiving or viewing) nude or nearly nude pictures or images via a mobile or online, as well as related risks and consequences. 

103: Sexual Rights and Sexual Risks among Youth Online: A Review of Existing Knowledge Regarding Children and Young People’s Developing Sexuality in Relation to New Media Environments

eNACSO & EU Kids Online (Nov 2016)

This report reviews available research literature from a diverse group of stakeholders and experts. 27 database searches were conducted which focused on literature relevant to 10- to 17-year-olds that included general risks and opportunities with sexual experiences online, accessing sex education and sexual health information. Inclusion criteria included: research published in the last decade (2005-15), available in the English language, any research methodology, and studies focused on children aged 10 to 17. Ultimately 150 articles were critically reviewed and included in the findings.

100: ISEC Project Illegal Use of the Internet Project: Cyber-typologies and Victimisation

Centre for Abuse and Trauma Studies (CATS), Middlesex University (Nov 2016) 

A summary of the results of a retrospective online questionnaire study conducted by the ISEC Project to examine the vulnerability characteristics, online behaviours and experiences of sexual solicitation of young people. The sample consisted of 1166 young adults between the ages of 18 and 24 from three countries (United Kingdom, N = 340; Ireland, N = 529; Italy, N = 297) who answered questions about their offline lives, online behaviours and experiences when aged 12-16. The majority of the sample (70%) were in education at the time of responding, and 71.1% of respondents were female.  

96: Sexting and Young People: The Parent's View

NSPCC (August 2016) 
A summary of the results of a large scale survey undertaken by FACTs International, on behalf of the NSPCC, between February and April 2016. The study examined explored parent’s knowledge and perceptions of sexting, as well as the types of resources and support that they would like to receive. Initial qualitative interviews were undertaken with 32 parents and carers in order to inform the survey questions. This was followed by an online survey with 1000 parents and carers from across the UK, which was available online between the 4th April and the 19th April. 

54: ChildLine Online Issues Report 2012-13

ChildLine (Sept 2013)
A summary of the results of analysis of the over 10,600 counselling sessions ChildLine received in 2012-13 where young people talked about a problem they had experienced online. These include cyberbullying, online sexual abuse, sexting, social networking and online safety issues. 

35: A qualitative study of children, young people and 'sexting'

Ringrose et al, commissioned by the NSPCC (Jun 2012)
A small-scale qualitative study using single-sex focus group interviews with 35 young people in years 8 and 10 in two inner city schools in London. An online ethnography was also conducted with 31 participants who accepted the researchers’ friending requests on Facebook, from which a further 22 students were selected from the focus groups for individual interviews.