A summary of the results of evaluation of the NSPCC InCtrl programme. This is a preventative service that aims to support children to safely enjoy online life by increasing safe online behaviours and digital resilience. The implementation evaluation examined (1) the feasibility of the pilot service, (2) whether the theory of change for InCtrl is evidenced, and (3) the factors that were barriers and facilitators to service delivery. Using mixed methods, the evaluation included analysis of case record data for 162 children referred to InCtrl during the pilot; two online surveys completed by practitioners; and 32 qualitative interviews and focus groups held with children, parents/carers and NSPCC staff.
Dr Juliane Kloess (University of Birmingham), Dr Michael Larkin (Aston University), Dr Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis (University of Bath), and Professor Anthony R. Beech (University of Birmingham) (April 2018)
A summary of the results of a qualitative study examining offender’s experiences of illegal interactions with young people via Internet communication platforms which progressed to physical meetings. Two interviews were conducted with offenders who met the selection criteria of having committed (a) an offence of sexual grooming under Section 15 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (Home Office, 2003), or (b) any other offence under the Sexual Offences Act 2003 that included sexual grooming. The two participants were males in their 30s and 40s. The data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA).
Dr Juliane Kloess (University of Birmingham), Dr Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis (University of Bath), and Professor Anthony R. Beech (University of Birmingham) (July 2017)
A summary of the results of a qualitative study examining the context in which sexual grooming occurs as part of sexually exploitative interactions with young people online. A five case series, comprising 29 transcripts of 22 interactions, were analysed using thematic analysis. These were identified and selected by the police forces involved based on meeting the criteria of the offender having committed (a) an offence of sexual grooming under Section 15 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (Home Office, 2003), or (b) any other offence under the Sexual Offences Act 2003 that included sexual grooming.
A summary of the results of a systematic literature review examining the developmental appropriateness of children and young people accessing indecent images of children (IIOC), and the associated characteristics of those who engage in the behaviour. Research published between 2000 and 2015 across five different research platforms was identified using predefined search terms. The review focused primarily on research with children and young people, but findings from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of research with adults were also included for comparison.
Centre for Abuse and Trauma Studies (CATS), Middlesex University (Nov 2016)
A summary of the results of a retrospective online questionnaire study conducted by the ISEC Project to examine the vulnerability characteristics, online behaviours and experiences of sexual solicitation of young people. The sample consisted of 1166 young adults between the ages of 18 and 24 from three countries (United Kingdom, N = 340; Ireland, N = 529; Italy, N = 297) who answered questions about their offline lives, online behaviours and experiences when aged 12-16. The majority of the sample (70%) were in education at the time of responding, and 71.1% of respondents were female.
Lund University, Sweden & University of New Hampshire, USA (May 2015)
A summary of the results of the large scale and nationally representative Third Youth Internet Safety Survey (YISS-3) undertaken in the USA between August, 2010 and January, 2011. The study aimed to quantify youth experiences with unwanted sexual solicitations, harassment and unwanted exposure to pornography online. The sample consisted of 1,560 Internet users aged 10-17 and their caretakers. The results presented are based on data from those participants who reported unwanted Internet experiences (e.g., sexual solicitation, online harassment, unwanted exposure to pornography) and who answered follow-up questions about whether they had told someone about the experience (n = 134, n = 174 and n = 346 respectively) or how the situation ended (n = 134, n = 170 and n = 348 respectively).
Crimes Against Children Research Centre, University of New Hampshire (March 2014)
A summary of the results of the Third National Juvenile Online Victimization (NJOV-3) Study undertaken in the USA. A stratified national sample of 2,653 U.S. law enforcement agencies were contacted to request data on arrests in 2009 for Internet-related sexual exploitation against minors, with detailed telephone interviews conducted with investigators about individual cases. The data presented examines a subset of arrest cases that included the use of online sexual communications (n = 143 online-meeting offenders; n = 139 know-in-person/online offenders).
NCMEC (Feb 2014)
An overview of statistical information provided by the National Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) in the U.S. relating to the child abuse images they have dealt with since the launch of their Exploited Children’s Unit in 1998 up to and including 11th November 2012.
ChildLine (Sept 2013)
A summary of the results of analysis of the over 10,600 counselling sessions ChildLine received in 2012-13 where young people talked about a problem they had experienced online. These include cyberbullying, online sexual abuse, sexting, social networking and online safety issues.